Europa ~ Moon of Jupiter
Scientists Discover Volcanoes And
Evidence Of Ancient Microbial Activity On Jovian Moon


Geological Formations And Structures Discovered on Europa Amazingly Identical to Those Found On Earth

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE


Europa's trailing hemisphere in approximate natural color. The prominent crater in the lower right is Pwyll and the darker regions are areas where Europa's primarily water ice surface has a higher mineral content. Imaged on 7 September 1996 by Galileo spacecraft. Courtesy: NASA

PRLog (Press Release) - May 26, 2010 - Pittsburgh, PA   The debate as to whether Earth holds the only life forms in the Solar System may have been intensified based on recent findings and photographic evidence produced by a team of independent scientists.  Working from first generation photographs and NIMS data supplied by NASA Goddard Space Center and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory a team of former NASA, NOAA and independent scientists have confirmed the presence of geological structures and volcanic activity common in similar hostile environments on Earth on the Jovian moon, Europa.   The evidence consists of numerous photographs and other scientific data gathered by the Galileo Space Probe which left Earth on October 18, 1989 and dove into Jupiter’s atmosphere on September 21, 2003.


Evidence of Life Forms Movile Cave, Romania and On Europa North of Pwyll Crater

The team is led by former NASA Scholar/Scientist Dr. Joseph A. Resnick, Inventor of Stealth Radex Technology.  Resnick functions as Chief Scientist for NxGenUSA Corporation of Pittsburgh, PA. and Principal Investigator for the Europa-Bio Project.  Dr. Richard Archer, CEO of DarkSolar Corporation of Denver, CO is an Astrobiologist, a former US Naval Officer and functioned as an Environmental Modeling Scientist for NOAA at USC where he developed the S’“O Algorithm enabling study of climatic variations in sediments and strata.  Dr. Archer functioned as Chief Astrobiologist for the Europa-Bio Project.  The third team member, Mr. Ron Stewart, Inventor of the proprietary photographic analysis programs used to generate comparison data, is an expert in sonar radiometry, digital imaging technology and functioned as team’s Chief Optical Physicist and Radiometric Analyst.  The process used to analyze the raw NASA photographs, invented by Stewart, enables true color, spatial relation and fractal enhancement amplification and pixel recognition based on a proprietary process that identifies elements and compounds contained in the photograph.  Elements contained in any photograph, radiograph, aperture radar signal, etc., may be analyzed using this technology.


The Pwyll Crater on Europa.
Credit: Elizabeth Turtle Planetary Image Research Lab, Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona


Working with spectroscopic data and first generation photographs a unique algorithm was utilized enabling amplification and increased resolution in raw images resulting in the ability to magnify targeted areas of study producing remarkable pictorial images.  Working from NASA’s raw image of Europa an area located in ‘the chaos’ region falling along Europa’s equatorial plane was first identified as an area likely to contain geological and biological structures commonly found on Earth where extremophiles are found.  An example of such area is the Movile Cave in Romania, believed to have been ‘hidden‘ for more than five million years, which contains 43 different species of extremophiles, with 33 of these being endemic.  Europa‘s ‘chaos region‘ is marked with elevated lines, ridges and deep valleys confirmed both visually and electronically to comprise of large chunks of ice and fissures, containing a particular red-colored area known as the ‘River of Blood’.  These types of structures are found to traverse the entire surface of Europa, similar to banding on Earth, with some areas containing more intense red coloring, indicating, for example, the presence of Iron Oxide or other areas being yellow-colored indicating the presence of Sulfur, for example.  In either case these elements are capable of providing nutrient sources for cryptophiles, thermophiles or piezophiles, organisms capable of surviving in extreme temperature non-oxygenated environments. Europa is one of several ‘ice planets’ with its crust believed to be as deep as 20 km in thickness with warm, liquid water oceans contained beneath the ice-covered surface.

Three particular areas on Europa were selected for study and comparison with similar places on Earth by virtue of structural and compositional similarities and differences with each containing differing albedo, Langumuir lines and regions of upwelling and downwelling.  The first study area above the Equator in the left hemisphere was selected  and anticipated to have lower temperatures than other areas.  The second area of study located below the Equator and slightly above the Pwyll Crater was expected to be slightly warmer than the first area.  The third area of study traverses the Equatorial plane and was selected in order to establish a temperature base line and to provide additional information when more formal White Papers are presented for Peer Review. 


Pwyll Crater on Europa (NASA/JPL Galileo PIA 01175)
Recent images of an impact crater name Pwyll have been recovered from Europa, one of Jupiter's planetary satellites now being studied through the Galileo spacecraft. The crater contains a central peak, which is typical for moderate sized impact basins. The computer-generated topographic image of Pwyll Crater in fig.1 clearly shows the central peak (B), crater ring (C), ejecta (E), and outflow deposits (F) of this impact feature of 26 km. diameter.

The first area examined was located on the side of a deep fissure in The River of Blood region located along the equatorial plane.  The second area examined was located in the ‘chaos’ area slightly to the northeast of the Pwyll Crater, one of the more noticeable impact craters found on Europa.  The third area located along a protracted fissure estimated to be approximately 1200 km in length and more than 400 km deep in some areas traverses diagonally on Europa’s surface from a point slightly above the equatorial plane proceeding in a northeast direction.  In this area study confirms the presence of at least two (2) active volcanoes with the primary volcano having an approximate depth of 1300 meters with a significant sulfur deposit located on the southern rim of the caldera.

Sites on Earth possessing similar environmental, elemental and structural properties were selected for study.  These were a location containing a large sulfur deposit located in Yellowstone National Park, USA, the Movile Cave in Romania and Blood Falls, Antarctica.  Photographs, climatological and geological data were supplied by USGS for all sites.


Blood Falls pouring into Lake Bonney. A tent can be seen in the lower left for size comparison.
Image Credit : United States Antarctic Program Photo Library


The River of Blood location, Europa, was compared with the Blood Falls Antarctica region on Earth.  The ‘chaos’ area, Europa, above the Pwyll crater, was compared with the Movile Cave, Romania, on Earth.  The third area, protracted fissure containing active volcano, Europa, was compared with the large sulfur deposit, Yellowstone Park, USA.


This pattern is not typical of craters on Earth except for the newly discovered crater in the North Sea.
Courtesy of NASA


“The optical analysis comprising spectral data and photographic elements yielded striking visual results”, Resnick said. “The geological formations found on Europa are identical, in every observable instance, to those geological structures found on Earth when compared to those discovered on Europa.  On Earth, at Blood Falls, for example, or, in fact at all three locations, venting from volcanism, off gassing and biological activity combine to result in the formation of fumaroles having structures and shapes exactly like those discovered on Europa.  Based on the visual evidence alone one could make a very strong case for the presence of some type of biological activity on Europa”, Resnick said.  When asked whether the team’s preliminary findings supported a claim to stating that ‘life existed on Europa’ Stewart said, “The fact that identical structures are found on both celestial bodies in climatic conditions supportive of and containing endemic chemotrophs, oligotrophs it would be pretty hard to conclude or to argue otherwise.  To confirm our preliminary findings we are calling on all Scientists to become involved.  With regard to 'life on Europa', how else can we account for or explain the presence of the fumaroles on Europa?”  When asked the same question Dr. Archer stated, “ We can only conclude that based on this preliminary subjective data that some type of biological activity is at play on Europa.  The only way to be 100% certain is to send a probe to Europa, one that could undertake requisite assays to test for lipids, DNA, other biomarkers, etc.  Then we‘d know for certain.“ 


END

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All Photographs Copyright (unless otherwise attributed), 2010, R.Stewart, J.Resnick, R. Archer, DarkSolar Corporation, NxGenUSA Corporation, All Rights Reserved under UCC 1-207, Inclusive, Globally and Universally.



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Scientists Discover Volcanoes And Evidence Of Ancient Microbial Activity On Jovian Moon